Or rather less dramatically, why is online shopping littered with abandoned baskets and trolleys like a barren car park?
The answer, according to a survey from Liveperson, is chiefly:
- unexpected delivery costs appearing from nowhere within the checkout, with 77% of shoppers saying that would cause them to run.
- a lack of information about products, service or delivery caused 60% to leave their baskets behind.
- 58% cited 'navigation difficulties' (which could be resolved with an isolated checkout).
- 47% wanted to ask a question but couldn't find the answer.
- and finally 33% wanted more help with their transaction.
Some food for thought over Easter for store owners....
Created on Wednesday March 27 2013 02:46 PM
In Part One, I dealt with what makes a good (or bad) password.
In Part Two, I'll talk a little about how passwords should be held behind the scenes. It's the most techie part of the series, but it sets us up nicely for Part Three, so please bear with me!
Most people don't give much thought to what Facebook/The Bank/Bob's Website do to store our passwords behind the scenes. We trust them to do a good job, but what does that mean?
Good websites (such as all ours at Focus, of course!) will never store a password in plain text. Even if my password was "password" - an exceptionally bad choice! - we'd never store in the database:
Instead, we store the password with something sometimes called "one way encryption". In simple terms, it means it's really easy to take "password" and turn it into a seemingly random string like "5e884898da28047151d0e56f8dc6292773603d0d6aabbdd62a11ef721d1542d8" - but it's just about impossible to get from that string back to the original phrase "password". (*)
Then, if a hacker does manage to obtain somehow a list of usernames and passwords from the database, they don't see the password in plain text, but instead see this messy string - and there's no way to get the string back to "password" again.
When you login to the site, we (roughly speaking) take the string you've entered, use one-way-encryption to turn it into the messy string, and see if that matches what's in the database - if it does, then we've verified your password is correct without needing to ever store your password. (Clever!)
So, back to our example, say a hacker does obtain a list of encrypted passwords. We know they can't turn them back into password - BUT - if they know the method we're using to turn passwords into encrypted ones, they can try guessing passwords one at a time, encrypting them, and seeing if they match what's in the database. If it does, they've guessed your password.
This is a good reason you shouldn't use a common password; a hacker can (if they obtain one of the lists above), run a dictionary of common passwords through this method, and probably find some passwords quite quickly.
If your password is a good secure password, they will have to use "brute force", which is the password equivalent of trying to open a combination padlock by trying 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, etc. If your password is long, the hope is that it will take an incredibly long amount of time to break it.
If your password is upper and lower case letters, numbers and common symbols, and 8 characters long, it could take up to 23 years for a computer to "brute force" it, working 24x7x365 (**). Hopefully, you'll have changed it by then!
Now we know a little bit about how passwords are stored, in Part Three, we can draw some conclusions, spot bad websites, and learn why you shouldn't use the same password on different sites.
(*) Note for extreme techies: that's a SHA256 hash of password, which is simpler than I'd recommend using in real life.
(**) Source: http://www.lockdown.co.uk/?pg=combi
Created on Friday March 01 2013 01:57 PM
For the first time, Focus has chosen an 'official charity' for 2013, and I'm not ashamed to say it's one that's very close to my heart (at the risk of offending charities that we currently work with!)
Our daughter Abigail was born in July 2012, very premature and weighing only 2lb 12oz. She had a further complication that meant she couldn't breathe without mechanical support.
For three months, our hopes and lives were all in the hands of the neonatal team at Evelina Childrens Hospital at St Thomas in London, who were amazing and took much care of Abigail (and at times, her parents!) and Abigail couldn't have been anywhere better. The team deal with all sorts of conditions and situations with expertise and reassurance and endless patience.
Abigail has had three surgical procedures since but we have a final visit to London lined up in March and we hope she'll be signed off, back into local care. She's now a healthy 13lb and has been at home since October, causing all sorts of havoc.
The Evelina is an inspiring place, designed and built with children in heart and mind, and the staff are so positive and encouraging for all their young patients - it's an amazing place to go and sample a slice of life you don't usually see.
So throughout 2013 Focus will be making a monthly donation to St Thomas's Together We Can campaign - a small thank you from Abigails parents and the team at Focus to show our gratitude.
Created on Monday February 25 2013 12:47 PM
Retail analysis from Capgemini has revealed that online retail has got off to a fast start in 2013 - with 16% growth on the same period last year. This against a background of traditional retail and the high street continuing to struggle in tough economic times.
The same report is predicting overall growth in online sales of 12%.
So what are the big trends and changes that online shop owners should be keeping an eye on for the coming year, to ensure they take advantage of this growing sector?
1. Mobile / Responsive Design
2012 was the year of responsive web design - and the stats show that retailers need to stay on top of their mobile offering during 2013. The same Capgemini report states sales through mobile devices were up 193% in January 2013 compared to same period 2012. "Mobile commerce is here to stay", it states. "No longer are customers shopping from their sofas at home, but instead spotting products in store and choosing to purchase online instead on the grounds of cost or convenience."
The goal of responsive design is to give shoppers the same user experience independent on what device they are using to access online stores: a desktop, laptop, tablet, smartphone or 55 inch TV screen. A responsive eCommerce store adapts itself to be viewed in an ideal manner on any screen size. Combined with Google's new Enhanced AdWords, targeting users with specific devices with pay-per-click ads has never been easier.
There's so much that goes into mobile commerce (M-Commerce) that it deserves a blog post of it's own - so that'll be coming soon.
2. Product Images and Videos
Customers are faced with massive choice; a store that can show them clear, fast loading images of their desired products stands better chance of conversion than using small, ineffective product photographs that reveal no detail.
Videos are increasingly important in helping customers decide that a product and a shop are for them. This is especially relevant where complex products are being sold, or products where it's difficult for a customer to view it 'in situ'. A demonstration video of a product working can be very useful. Videos also lend themselves for use in social media campaigns and platforms such as YouTube and Twitter - helping drive more genuinely interested traffic to your store.
3. Content, Content, Content
Keep it short - attention spans seem to be getting less and less all the time. Content should be benefit led, highly readable, SEO friendly - yet concise so that it appeals to visitors - tricky stuff!
But an effective content strategy that's followed throughout the entire store can really make the difference in conversion rates. Don't forgot to apply these principles to information pages - such as delivery details and how customers return items.
Collecting personal information has always been a sensitive topic - never more than during the rather strange implementation of new cookie laws in 2012 - but I'm not sure the average user is too worried about giving personal data in return for a more enjoyable and personalised online experience.
2013 will see agencies like Focus continue to see how personalised content can be implemented and presented - using the wealth of information gained from analytics, browsing and order history, user behavior and user preferences. Today, users have 'Amazon like' expectations from eCommerce stores, and advances in technology mean this functionality no longer out of reach for online retailers.
5. Conversion Rate Optimisation
CRO is nothing new - but in 2013 with competition never more intense, it's crucial that store owners don't waste traffic once it's arrived.
Made up of trends already mentioned - such as content strategy, mobile and personalisation - CRO adds the need to stay on top of technical developments and user expectations. For example: isolated checkouts have shown to have beneficial effects on conversion rate. Simple changes can make dramatic differences.
A/B testing and external user testing are more accessible as ever - store owners need to make an ongoing commitment to CRO, too much money is spent on acquiring new customers, only to lose them when they arrive at a store that doesn't work for them.
Created on Monday February 25 2013 11:13 AM
Passwords are everywhere. You need a password for your email. For Facebook. For your bank. For the iTunes store. For your favourite forum. And probably for a few tens of passwords for other miscellaneous sites too.
In this first part of a multi-part series, I'll be dealing with ways to choose a good password - or, perhaps, ways to choose a bad one.
So, what do you pick for your password? Hopefully you'll be aware that picking a word in the dictionary ("password" is still the most popular password, according to reports), or a person's name is a bad idea.
However, the old standby of adding a number is so well-known now that passwords like "Password1" (the most popular business password, owing to its use of a capital letter and a number, thereby satisfying most password rules) and "abc123" now show up amongst the most used passwords - and hence in the hackers' lists of the most obvious passwords to try.
In addition, all the people trying to guess passwords figured out long ago that swapping a letter O for a number 0 (and its obvious I/1, E/5 friends) are pretty obvious, so "passw0rd" isn't much more secure than the plain version.
Very well known, and hence obvious, are patterns of letters and numbers - "qwerty", "12345678" and "abc123" all show up in popular lists and are best avoided.
Kids/Spouses/Pets/Sport Club names and years are also fairly common, so if I know (or take a stab statistically) that you have a girl that's about six, "grace07" or "Grace07" or "Grace2007" - the most popular girl's name of that year - isn't going to last long against a determined hacker either.
Finally, clever little phrases - "trustno1" and "letmein" are so popular as to be not recommended, and, appropriately for a post on Valentine's day, "iloveyou" also shows up on most popular lists. Sweet, but insecure. Sorry.
So how to choose a better one that you'll remember?
Song lyrics or film quotes are an oft-cited idea - if you're a Hotel California fan, you could compress "Her mind is Tiffany-twisted, she got the Mercedes bends" down to its initial letters - "HmiTtsgtMb" - and if Tiffany makes you think of money and the Mercedes logo looks a bit like an asterisk, how about "Hmi$tsgt*b" - that is starting to look like a much more decent password.
Of course, the problem here is that you want to stay away from obvious songs (like Hotel California!) and obvious films. Favour that odd 1973 foreign film over Austin Powers quotes, please.
The very best password, however, is long and random. If your password is "GsH:oM6I0d!xMukI", the hackers are going to be guessing for a very long time indeed. Of course, the problem is: how on Earth are you going to remember that?
A password manager can be a good choice here - one that keeps your horrendously long passwords safe on your computer, and protects them with another password that you can remember.
Whilst in one way, that just moves the problem a little, it's still a good idea - it means that you're never telling anyone/any website (apart from your password manager) the key you need to unlock the very complex password that you actually give to Facebook.
It also means the hacker needs physical access to your password manager (probably on your computer itself) rather than being able to try to get into your Facebook account directly, which ups the difficulty considerably over what they need to achieve.
However, the real advantage of a password manager is that you don't need to use the same passwords for all websites. To know why this is a good idea, we need to know a little about how passwords are stored, and we'll cover that in Passwords - Part Two!
Created on Thursday February 14 2013 09:19 AM
Recently at a focus knowledge share I talked to the team about Information Architecture and its role within the user centred design process. I also talked through best practice methods and techniques that could be used within a digital project. I like to think of Information Architecture or IA as the art of organising websites or software to support usability. IA can be used outside of digital projects but this is what I focused upon.
Information Architecture can identify the goals of your website and help you to create a digital blueprint or wireframe of your potential users' process through your website. It is an important part of the strategy and solution design process right at the start of a web project. You can use it to eventually group up and define the taxonomy of all of the website's contents, products and features in a user driven way.
IA is just one part of the user centred design process, analysing your users needs and assessing the journey they want to complete on your website. It is using key usability principles such as visibility, accessibility and consistency to create the basis for what will become your final deliverable. The user centred design process as a whole incorporates a lot of real world testing to ensure no assumptions are made during the design process. IA starts off this real world testing at a very early stage, ensuring first of all you know the correct audience to test! Designers and developers must be experts in our fields, however we do not know often the intricacies of the end user and need to form our opinions on a basis of research to then take back to the client.
There is always a different amount of research required with every project. The methodology, processes and opinions of IA I am talking about just refer to common approaches rather than quoting from an exact guide to IA.
At the very beginning of any size IA process it is important to ask yourselves, your users and your client questions. What are the short term goals of the website? Why would people come to the website? We need at this stage to establish an audience, this is going to be very important as we will base the majority of our research gathering from this audience. At this point we have to really think through what different elements that make up a website's audience and how they will use the website differently from each other. You can create scenarios of them coming to the website, what their goals are and what difficulties they might have. From here we can gauge our competitors and start to address gaps in functionality in the market for the audience. This is only the start of your UX and IA journey, next you can start to define core content and the functional requirements of your website, this will lead you down a path of wireframes and lo-fi designs until you have your perfect blueprint for the website of your user's dreams!
Some of the core methods and techniques of IA were the reason I enjoyed it so much in university. Card sorting and content discussions with your peers either as part of the user group or as a facilitator is always fascinating and insightful. It helps to outline potential issues and golden points to your website that you have not thought of yet.
Creating sitemaps, wireframes and discussing the user flow throughout a website will help your designers. When they open the graphics tool of their choice they are equipped not only with their expert knowledge of the web but a knowledge of what the user needs and what goals have to be achieved by their design. Personas can often really bring a website to life, when you are discussing how best Jimmy the iPhone fanatic will achieve his goals of buying your client's products you can start to feel the website being out in the real world before it is fully created.
A full user centred design process is not always what the client has in mind when they bring a project to you, it is often the case that there is not a budget to go out and spend weeks creating personas and testing how the website flow using paper based designs. However small bits of IA and the user centred design process will always fall into a web-creative's design process, we want to create the dream websites for our users and the only people who know exactly what the dream is, is the users themselves.
Created on Thursday February 07 2013 03:38 PM
As a web designer, I owe my career to the internet and it's popularity but if I don't keep up with the ever growing market it holds then there could be trouble. It's down to me to ensure I stay ahead of the game by continually updating and streamlining my work to keep it relevant.
To do this I have to consider how web design might change. What may be popular in the future? which novelties are fading out?
A lot has changed in terms of web design over the past few years and as we wave goodbye to January (yes, already!) and delve deeper in to 2013 this growth is almost certain to continue.
Reasons behind change are varied but it is safe to say that developments in technology are one of them. WIth this in mind, here are just a few things that I think may remain or become popular in this new year..
O.K, so that was an obvious one but it has been said that just after next year over 50% of web traffic will come from a mobile device. It is becoming as important to please your mobile visitors as it is to please traditional web browsers.
Clean and efficient design doesn't look set to be disappearing anytime soon. People can't seem to get enough of the clarity it brings.
Expect large buttons now that touch screen has pretty much taken over, well, for commercial users at least. I know I'm not the only one using my mobile device to catch up on social networking on the way to work!
Mobile devices are getting far better at loading big sites quickly so the web will no doubt see more and more large and high definition images. Also, resolutions continue to increase so smaller images simply don't look as good as they used to.
Social media and creating discussion are both becoming even more important. In order to keep up their profiles businesses are embracing various techniques across design, SEO, email marketing and social media.
I don't have a crystal ball but it's good to gather an idea on what lies ahead if we want to improve user experience. Just one year can bring a lot of change, especially in technology. So, it's important to us to always keep on top of it as it can shape the way we design, test and market our websites.
Created on Monday February 04 2013 09:30 AM
We've recently launched a new ticketing system for our friends at Barriers Direct (http://www.barriersdirect.co.uk), and it contains some interesting features, and some close integration with the rest of the back office systems, that I'll briefly outline here.
For those that don't know, a ticketing system is a little like a to-do list that can be shared amongst people, and records status as things change. For instance, if a client enquiry comes in, we can assign it to the most relevant person to deal with it. Perhaps they have to query something with accounts before responding to the client, so they can assign the query there. Accounts respond, and assign it back again -- and so on until the ticket is finally completed and marked as closed.
Every action is time stamped with who said what and when. Unlike email, the entire thread of activity is available to all relevant people at all times - it's not hidden away in people's Inboxes and Sent Items. For instance, there's no more thinking that you sent this task to Bob yesterday, but he's off today, and wondering if he did anything with it - you can check the ticket, and see that Bob forwarded it to accounts. Now, someone else can follow up in his absence.
As people do tend to check email very regularly, however, the ticketing system sends various emails to let them know there are things waiting for them - it emails people when tickets are assigned to them, and emails daily summaries of outstanding tickets, for instance.
The team at Barriers Direct use extensive reporting facilities within Quantum to keep track of their business, and tickets mean they can produce reports of how many requests come in, what the different types of requests are, and how long it takes to respond to them -- and how that all changes over time.
The ticket system is integrated right into Focus's Quantum website administration system, which manages the order system too, and that allows us some tight integration that wouldn't be possible with a 3rd party ticketing solution; lists of orders highlight those with tickets associated with them, for instance, and vice versa, from the ticket you can get to the full details of the order in just one click.
If you're interested in knowing more about a ticketing system, either for an existing or new website - please do give us a ring, or drop us an email and we'd be very happy to talk to you!
Photo copyright Andres Rueda, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license.
Created on Thursday January 31 2013 10:18 AM
Sometimes part of the 'Information Architecture' planning stage of a website project, Content Strategy is a fundamental part of the success of your site.
Most charities know exactly what they want to say and what their message is, but don't know how to say it - effectively - on the web. Good web content is powerful, short; easy to scan over and navigate through. You don't lose your audience in those first few critical seconds with over-long and hard to read content.
Charity sites need to speak to a wide audience (several different audiences, in fact), and tend to focus on emotive images and text, with core messaging about their causes and how they help. It's common to feature large images, video content or graphics. You can see examples of these on our friends at MSI's site - www.ms-society.ie
The more you can identify what your audiences are interested in - and respond to - the easier it is to produce content that is engaging and thought-provoking.
A key part of Information Architecture - 'Personas' - can be used as an approach for planning content. You could consider holding a content strategy workshop; using audience personas to help your staff empathise with each audience type and 'see the site through their eyes'. From this work, your web team can assess the information architecture (navigation and content structure) for the site, ensuring it's relevant to the 'Persona' findings.
Planning and developing your site content needs to begin at the start of the project, and follow the agreed milestones; not be a mad copy-paste scramble from old site to new in the final days before go-live...
Linked to your site content will inevitably be Social Media. It's a cost effective way to increase your communication-reach; and ideally has some strategy behind it to keep focus on what's trying to be achieved. Your web team can feed in posts and tweets automatically to the web site or other social media tools - without you having to repeatedly copy-paste!
Tips for Strong Content
Keep it short - use short, punchy content rather than lengthy, rambling articles. Attention spans are getting shorter, so consider using videos to explain issues in a quick, engaging way - Save the Children is producing short videos to tell stories much faster, www.wateraid.org.uk will tell you at first glance: 'Today, 4000 children will die because of dirty water and poor sanitation'. Those 12 words say it all.
Use images - Real, hands on photos of activities and events. No head-and-shoulders shots! Staff and volunteers can - and should - take photos all the time, and save them in a communal image bank. But do try to save budget for a professional photographer, for key marketing images on your home page, brochure covers, advertising etc.
Get organised - Staff and volunteers need to capture all the highs and lows they'll experience in their day - these real-life stories will provide relevant content that will engage readers. Encourage them to save their notes and articles in a story bank - or better still, publish an article on the site!
Talk to your audience - People are used to informal language. Be natural, conversational where appropriate, and use plain English - and try to say 'you' more than 'we' where you can. Use terms that make sense - 'stakeholders' means something to your corporate team, but not to Bob who just wants to know what you spend your donations on.
And crucially - using copy that 'normal' people enter in search engines, makes that article easier to find in search results.
Use Social Media - ideal for presenting your 'personality'. Instead of sharing links to recent blogs or articles, use tools like Twitter and Facebook to chat with your audience. Try to actually reply to/contact someone every few tweets. Monitor your streams and direct audiences to further content.
Have a purpose - whether it's to get new donors, supporters, sponsors or volunteers, there should be a call to action on every page. This could be contact or to find out more, or also see...
Use quotes - comments from staff, volunteers or service users makes content feel 'real' and current.
User testing - your volunteers may be pleased to help with user testing; set them tasks to find certain information, or perform a series of content-related tasks. Getting feedback and input form 'real' users will be invaluable, and can be fed into the site to keep it fresh and effective.
Top tip - Always think about the 'So What?' factor. Why does your audience need to know this information, do they understand it, and what's in it for them...
If you'd like to know more about Information Architecture, Content Strategy or any other topics from this blog, please give us a call or drop us an email - we'd be very happy to talk to you!
Created on Tuesday January 29 2013 01:56 PM
The internet is rapidly becoming available on a whole host of devices and platforms, so I do not think I need to sell anyone the importance of a mobile friendly website. In 2012, smartphone sales overtook PC sales, and it is estimated that in three years time tablet sales will do the same thing. 28% of all internet use is through a phone, so this leads some companies to now move towards a "mobile first" development style. However what do you do for sites that may have been created before mobile became such an important discussion in web development?
At Focus we set about the task of creating a mobile site for 1 Big Database. There were two options for us, either we change the website to be responsive or we create a mobile specific version. To decide between the two you really have to look at your users' needs while browsing the site on their mobile. If your website has a variety of content and functions all of which need to be usable from a mobile browser then it is probably a better idea to optimise your website in a responsive way. This will allow all of the content to be the same or very similar across all devices whilst still being usable and looking good.
1 Big Database is a comprehensive directory of organisations and events across the Bath & North East Somerset, Bristol and South Gloucestershire area. We had identified three key areas of functionality that would be needed for mobile users. This meant that we would want to focus the users into these three areas, hiding the rest of the content and functionality on the website whilst still optimising look and feel for smaller devices.
We decided to use the jQuery mobile framework for 1 Big Database. jQuery mobile is a lightweight cross platform mobile framework, designed to enhance the development of mobile applications. It includes an ajax navigation system and page transitions to give an 'app like' feel to your websites. It has a core set of UI widgets as well as being built on jQuery core meaning if you understand the jQuery syntax it will not seem alien to you.
This allowed us to create a mobile website that would be available across not only the main smartphones but a comprehensive list of older phones as well, jQuery mobile also supports a vast amount of tablets and e-reader platforms if that is needed for your project. The documentation for the list of supported devices is available here. Within the jQuery mobile framework common HTML elements such as links, unordered lists and form elements are extremely easy to use on a mobile device. The feedback when pressing buttons, or moving between screens keeps the user aware of where they are in the website and what options are available to them. It can often be frustrating when having to zoom in on sites to view and then click through a complicated path on a mobile website. The elements have a consistent feel throughout the 1 Big Database website, with the inclusion of some theme use we were also able to keep the website consistent with the desktop version of 1 Big Database. We wanted experienced users who were familiar with having orange for selected elements, green for action links and blue for headings not to be put off by changing this on our mobile site.
1 Big Database worked well with a customised theme within jQuery mobile, but if you were creating a mobile version of a website that had a different colour scheme there is also the ThemeRoller available. For instance we are going to create a jQuery mobile site for Rainbow Resource, (an online directory for families with disabled children in the Bath and North East Somerset area) - this website has a very clear colour scheme that is important to its identity. With ThemeRoller you can create a base of themes which can then be implemented in the same way as the default themes leaving you a lot of options for website identity.
We're very pleased with the way that jQuery mobile has worked on this site, although we have also discussed when we felt it would not be as appropriate for some projects. If you have a website that is going to be very content heavy, with a deep and extensive navigation system it might take a while for users to click through using the framework; it suits much more focused functionality and content. Consistency is an important part of web development and usability but there may be projects where there are a lot of unique and different designs throughout the site. You can see a list of very different jQuery mobile designs here but I think if you had a lot of different designs within one site it would take a longer time to create them all within jQuery mobile.
So in conclusion, we have very much enjoyed using jQuery mobile on one of our projects but we would be very interested to hear other people's experiences and if you have encountered anything different in one of your projects.
Created on Wednesday January 16 2013 05:21 PM
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